Water Drainage Techniques, Materials, Processes, and Maintenance
Effective water movement downstream through an operational drainage system requires adequate capacity to contain water through amiable drainage techniques. Materials, processes, and maintenance practices are all necessities that have to accompany this endeavor. A robust drainage system is an essential factor in harvesting and managing water as an essential commodity in production. According to Wolkersdorfer (2008), if the drainage system is faulty, erosion scars become a concern and the entire surface work becomes a farce. Conventional drainage techniques commonly used in draining excess water from the surface include surface drainage, vertical subsurface drainage, and horizontal subsurface drainage (Powers, 2007). Each of these drainage techniques requires the materials, processes, and maintenance practices to be effective.college essay for sale
Surface drainage consists of the removal of excessive water from the land surface in time to check the destruction of the land cover, and to keep it from spilling over to unmanageable levels. Surface drainage is typical of overland flow whose major component is the movement of excess surface flow to major drains and natural streams. This technique, according to Powers (2007), involves the excavation of open trenches to relieve the excess surface water. Moreover, it may consist of constructing broad-based ridges to help in discharging water through the depressions in the ridges (Clemmens, 2006). The drainage technique is most effective where soil is heavier and the infiltration rate is low. Naturally, in such places, excess rainfall does not easily percolate via the soil profile into the water table. In permeable soil, this technique is helpful in de-watering soils with a shallow water table. Under good maintenance practices, this is the most effective drainage method in the sub-humid and humid regions.
Horizontal Subsurface Drainage Horizontal subsurface drainage consists of the removal of water clogged beneath the land surface. Draining of excess water can be either through open ditches or by erecting a network of pipes horizontally installed below the ground surface. This technique is applicable in heavy soil to ease excess water trapped underneath the ground surface. As Wolkersdorfer (2008) opines, this technique is effective in achieving the optimum water table control in a more economical way. It is important to maintain the pipes by checking the flaws to ensure their efficacy. Pipes need checking most often to ascertain their effectiveness. As part of the maintenance practice, replacements for the broken pipes are necessary while clearing of blocked pipes makes them most reliable.